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Table of contents
- Virtual International Authority File
- Bankier Hjalmar Schacht: Hitlers selbstherrlicher Helfer - SPIEGEL ONLINE
- About this book
- Oskar Schlitter
- Plundering Pensions: The Destruction of the German Pension System by the Third Reich
At least seven persons are murdered in Berlin. During the pogrom and thereater, the Gestapo and police arrest more than 12, Berlin Jewish males. Some, especially the elderly, die of strokes even before their transport to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp. Due to maltreatment, hunger and heavy frost, a number of additional Berliners die there. Many of the concentra- tion camp prisoners, released ater a few weeks through a written pledge to emigrate immediately, have to be attended to in the Jewish Hospital.
In future, emigration is to be pushed ahead with more forcibly. In future this oice regulates matters of insurance and supply for jobless Berlin Jews separately Decree, Head of the Labor Oice. Jews who live inside such areas require a special police pass. Based on this police order, Jews in future are prohibited from visiting any theatres, movie houses, cabarets, public concert and lecture halls, museums, fairgrounds, sports ields including ice rinks , public and private bathing facilities and indoor swimming pools including outdoor facilities , the exhibition halls at Messedamm incl.
Within the span of one week, Jews must deposit all their securities in a currency exchange bank. It is henceforth forbidden to sell precious jewels and metals; they must be ofered to the Reich for purchase. Special consultation days and consultants will be arranged for their separation Decree, Lord Mayor. For retraining in agriculture as a preparation for emigration Hachsharah , on average a hundred persons apply daily, of whom percent are suitable.
Georg Landauer, Jerusalem, 6 December In the preceding ive years — , suicides were registered. In the framework of municipal social welfare, it is necessary in future to avoid accepting Jewish foster children in municipal care. Jewish women in childbed should only be provided assistance from midwives. No special beneits should be given to Jewish foster children and needy minors 2. A special purchasing unit in Berlin is responsible for objects to be handed over which have a value of more than 1, RM.
Jews who are disabled veterans should however no longer be given preferential treatment in oices, and they must hand in their corresponding identiication cards Decree, Berlin State Welfare Oice. In Berlin, such rentals must be reported to the head of the Implementation Oice for the Redesigning of the Reich Capital, who must grant approval for the irst new rental. Rooms in businesses where Aryanization permits have already been applied for do not have to be reported again Ordinance on the Redesigning of the Reich Capital Berlin and the Capital of the Movement Munich.
In the main, what is handed over in Berlin is silver, in the form of candelabras and cutlery. Existing Jewish associations and foundations are to be incorporated into the Reich Association along with their assets. See also: Decree, 23 September , with new regulations for use and fees, libraries and reading rooms, youth libraries and municipal libraries of the Reich capital, ibid. In addition, Jewish landlords are in future only allowed to rent out rooms with the express permission of the municipality. In future, subletting agreements by Jews can only be made with other Jews. At the request of the municipal authorities, Jews can be forced to take in other Jews as subtenants even in rooms they themselves have rented.
At the parcel post oices, there are 25, packages with valuable objects from the forced sale in other cities, and they can be removed only piece by piece. Berlin edition , Nos. Regarding the rejection of the application, see the memo by Dr. Gotthardt , April In addition, they must take over welfare food provision and clothing assistance for those receiving non-institu- tional out-client care services. Only half of the far more than , Jews counted in June in Berlin still live in the Reich capital.
As a rule, they are given reduced food allowances of 0. In the event of low productivity, the allowances are cancelled completely Decree, Berlin State Welfare Oice. Berlin in Zahlen. Ausgabe , ed. Statistisches Amt der Reichshauptstadt Berlin, Berlin , pp.
In the case of buildings of Jewish owners or users, it is necessary to give a detailed written account of the number and nature of rooms rented to Jews or standing unoccupied. Its main task is to foster forced emigration.
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Subordinated to the Reich Association are district oices and the previous Jewish Communities. But the Berlin Jewish Community shall remain legally independent until the beginning of Jews must personally pick up and return their cat- alogue cards at the competent police precinct station from 28 August to 2 September For the rest of the population, the cards will be handed out and then collected from 13 to 19 August by appointed oicers of the National Amtsblatt der Reichshauptstadt Berlin 80 , Sonderausgabe, 25 May , p.
In the following days and weeks, many of them perish due to the conditions of coninement. Ater the ban on Jewish newspapers and periodicals, the free access to information for the Jewish population is made even more diicult. Instead, they have to pick up these cards themselves four days later from the card distribution points Decree, Lord Mayor. Without any possibility for a livelihood, a quarter of those deported to the vicinity of Lublin die within a month due to the cold and hunger.
For that reason, names, date of emigration and intended destination must be reported to the executive committee of the Jewish Community By order of the Gestapo. Internal announcement. Given this regulation, the periods of ser- vice do not have to be calculated in payment of wages. Brandenburg in der NS-Zeit. Studien und Dokumente, ed.
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Dietrich Eichholtz, Berlin , p. If they do not obey, the police gives them one day to comply. Jews in forced labor receive a certiicate for shopping out- side the prescribed hours of work. Jews receive a ine of 50 RM or one week behind bars. Ater announcement at a secret ministerial conference on 20 August , against the opposition of the Reich Interior Ministry; see Boelcke, Kriegspropaganda, p.
However, proprietors are free to totally prohibit any Jews from entry to their premises Supplement, police ordinance, 4 July Jews have on principle to be personally summoned to appear rather than to be interrogated by written correspondence. At every opportunity, their ID card is to be demanded for purposes of identiication.
If they do not produce an ID card, they will be charged with a violation Decree, chief of police, re ID. At the same time, it is made diicult for Jewish landlords to evict Jewish tenants. For example, in the case of married couples without children, instead of For unmarried without children, instead of For Jews who relocated to Berlin ater 26 February , the exemption limit is even lower: for example, married couples without children, instead of Teil, p.
Lord Mayor , 15 August However, many more copies to supply to stores are needed. Due to a shortage of qualiied workers in the armaments industry, many of them are now even receive training on the job. However, at the end of November, the Gestapo decides against the use of Jews at the post oice, thus terminating this planned operation. It is charged they had submitted no application to add their compulsory irst names to their telephone directory entries.
One thousand of the more than 2, Community employees must be laid of and reported to the Labor Oice for conscript labor. Choral singers at the synagogue are no longer permitted to receive compensation for their services. See inter alia JNBl. He noted that in Vienna they probably could only handle the deportation of 45, per- sons. For that reason, it might be possible to transport the remaining number of 15, from Berlin. Jewish Religious Association in Berlin.
Bankier Hjalmar Schacht: Hitlers selbstherrlicher Helfer - SPIEGEL ONLINE
Train- ees and teachers are to be incorporated into forced labor deployment Order of the Gestapo. Based on reduced food rations for Jews, the forced laborers in the industrial plants are either to be given warm meals BA Berlin, R , No. However, until that point, partial deportations are to be organized, from other cities and Berlin. At this point in time, contemporary estimates speak of between 26, and 28, Jews working as forced laborers in Berlin irms.
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It is then noted on the cards who has emigrated and who has died. Since the lists contained only the names of principal tenants, the Gestapo then obtained the names of the subtenants via the police precincts; Willems, Der entsiedelte Jude, pp. In future, Jews are barred from leaving their residential community without a permit from the authorities.
It is now prohibited to publicly sell Jews any newspapers or periodicals. As a matter of fundamental principle, applications by Jewish sellers for these fees to be covered by the municipality must be rejected Circular, Local Authority Real Estate Oice. In the following weeks there are three further transports. Among the deportees are 4, persons from Berlin. On a single day in October, there are an estimated suicides by Jews in Berlin. Berliner Juden im Getto Litzmannstadt.
Institute of Jewish Afairs, New York , p. By contrast, existing contracts must be fulilled for the duration of the grave rest period. On Jewish graves, such symbols should also be removed even if they are perhaps not Masonic in origin but represent a symbol of the profession of the deceased Decree, Lord Mayor.
Wolfgang Benz et al. Just for the Stahnsdorf cemetery, in the period from mid-October to early November, eight further cases of suicide are recorded. Main school oice. In attendance are state secretaries from the most important Reich ministries, representatives of the administration of the occupied Eastern territo- ries, and the Security Police and SS. Sonderausgabe, 16 February , pp. Forced laborers are permitted to submit an application for an exception permit only if their distance traveled to work is more than 7 km or one hour travel time.
In Berlin, the animals to be surrendered shall be registered at the Jewish Hospital. Two-hundred-ity Jews have been shot, sent to a concen- tration camp. Eine quellenkritische Betrachtung, in: Berlin in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Jahrbuch des Landesarchivs Berlin, Berlin , pp. MID-JUNE On orders from the Gestapo, Jews must surrender to the German authorities, without compensation, all optical and electrical items and appliances in their personal posses- sion, such as binoculars and telescopes, cameras, electric heaters, cooking plates, vacuum cleaners, as well as typewriters and bicycles.
With the closure of Jewish schools, no longer does any educational facility whatsoever exist for Jews in Germany. Pupils aged 14 and above are to be reported to the Labor Oice for forced labor deployment. It should include names, marital status, address and data on forced labor service, etc. In future, they are totally banned from shopping in market halls, at weekly markets and from vendors with street stands. Jews who are still on the premises of shops ater 5 p. Between 4 and 5 p. Goods are not permitted to be put aside for them, and pre-ordering items by phone or orally is strictly forbidden.
Police oicers are instructed to implement these regulations by means of strict controls and checks. At the moment, there are still some 52, Jews in Berlin, Hildesheimer, Selbstverwaltung, pp. A further 13, Jews are to be evacuated by the end of November Approximately 19, Jews are deployed in conscript labor. Some individuals irms are now releasing Jews because in the mean- time they have obtained Russians as workers. In addition, they are no longer permitted to receive items of which there is a shortage.
See also announcement, JNBl. On 26 October , Community staf members men and women are deported to Riga on the so-called Community transport.
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Of those Community employees selected for the transport, 20 manage to lee. In the subsequent two months, they organize the deportations from the capital, under the direction of Alois Brunner. Now Jews are arrested brutally, with- out previous notice, block by block in their apartments. Piles of straw serve as beds, doors are removed from toilets, windows are itted with metal gratings.
Henschel, 19 October On this and the following, see also Blau, Bruno, untitled , in: Richarz, Monika ed. Selbstzeugnisse zur Sozialgeschichte, Vol. English edition: Jewish Life in Germany. V, fol. Updating of data records on Berlin Jews must be completed by 1 December See Kempner, Robert M. Festschrit, Berlin , p. A total of Berlin Jews took their lives in Of these, 15, are deployed as forced laborers.
Jewish Religious Association, e. Jewish Community is incorporated into the Reich Association, which leads to its removal from the Registry of Associations, but not its liquidation. With the key deadline of 28 February, they are initially to be concentrated in camps. With this surprising raid at the close of the deportations, the inten- tion is to seize in particular those Jews still working as forced laborers in industry and the labor camps, along with their families. State Police in Berlin Staatspolizeileitstelle, i.
Gestapo had informed the companies involved about the transport of their forced laborers the evening of 26 February In the collection camps, where they are kept several days under horrifying spatial and sanitary conditions, they are forced to hand over their valuables and keys, and are presented with decrees on the coniscation and seizure of their possessions for the beneit of the German Reich. Many non-Jewish relatives, fearing their spouses, parents or siblings may be put quickly on a transport, gather in front of this internment site.
Two-thirds of those sent to Auschwitz, about 7,, are originally from Berlin. Several hundred persons are selected for future work in various departments of the Jewish Community Berlin and the Reich Association real estate, taxes, etc.
About this book
Although many of them are later discovered and deported, a substantial number are able to survive with the aid of non-Jewish Berliners. Rather, they are put to work again in discriminatory menial labor, such as garbage collection, distributing liquid manure at sewage farms, and demolition and construction work in private irms and the Reichsbahn railway. It pays a total price of more than 1. Meine Geschichte, 2 vols. Over and beyond these acquisitions, the Berlin municipality purchased over 20 buildings and real estate from to , initially mainly from private persons, later on from the Reich Association and the Jewish Community Berlin; see ibid.
Most of these deported were staf workers of the Jewish Community. Ater the death of a Jew, his or her assets auto- matically fall to the state. In the event of failure to pay, if possible rents from other properties or furnishings are impounded for the taxes. If that is not pos- sible, a compulsory auction for foreclosure is arranged Decree, Main Tax Oice. Ater liberation, the Jewish Community estimates there are between 6, and 8, Jews living in Berlin.
Palestine 35 53 32 21 36 46 90 1, Australia 14 10 11 14 20 22 47 40 87 77 69 Africa 11 4 9 8 14 17 3 12 13 13 14 31 incl. South Africa 11 4 5 8 11 16 2 12 10 12 11 22 America 4, incl. Date No. In shorter parlance it is termed the Berufsbeamtengesetz or Civil Service Law. The Gau was the highest structural unit of the Nazi Party below the level of the Reich.
A Gauleiter reported directly to Hitler. Goebbels was Gauleiter of Berlin. The May census counted 6, Geltungsjuden, but other estimates raise that to ca. Gemeinde: Autonomous Jewish local community incorporated as a statutory body under public law. Every Jew who did not oicially declare their withdrawal automatically was a member of the local Gemeinde, and paid its taxes Gemeindesteuer.
Gemeinde is used in German also for municipality. It served as the semi-oicial organ of the Reich Representation and soon of the Reich Association. Land: A territorial-political unit in German political geography and administration similar in some ways to a federal state. These laws deined the inferior civil status of Jews in Germany. Much of the subsequent anti-Jewish legislation was issued in the form of 13 Verordnungen implementation ordinances to the Reich Citizenship Law.
The Reich Association was oicially founded by decree of July While all Jews had to be members, the association was responsible for their welfare, schooling and emigration. Volksgenosse: A member of the Volksgemeinschaft or folk community in Nazi ideology. Jews could not by deinition be Volksgenossen. Jewish Religious Association. Name of the Jewish Community in Berlin by regime directive from April Repositur repository RGBl.
Der gelbe Fleck. Reichsgesetzblatt — Reichsministerialblatt der inneren Verwaltung Das Schwarzbuch — Tatsachen und Dokumente. Klaus Behnken, 7th printing, Salzhausen Vossische Zeitung Adler, Hans G. Bajohr, Frank, Verfolgung aus gesellschaftsgeschichtlicher Perspektive. Die wirtschaftliche Existenzvernichtung der Juden und die deutsche Gesellschaft, in: Geschichte und Gesellschaft 26 , No. Bankier, David ed. English translation: From Boycott to Annihilation.
Benz, Wolfgang ed. Leben unter nationalsozialistischer Herrschaft, Munich Burrin, Philippe, Hitler und die Juden. Cox, John M. Eschwege, Helmut ed. Darstellung und Dokumente, Bremen Die Jahre der Verfolgung, Bd. English original: Nazi Germany and the Jews: Vol. Die Jahre der Vernichtung, Bd.
Gellately, Robert, Die Gestapo und die deutsche Gesellschaft. Die Durchsetzung der Rassenpolitik —, Paderborn Gilbert, Martin, Kristallnacht. Zur Zwangsarbeit als Element der Verfolgung bis , Berlin Gruner, Wolf, Die Kommunen im Nationalsozialismus. Der Verband nationaldeutscher Juden —, Cologne Heimat und Exil.
Emigration der deutschen Juden nach , eds. Hepp, Michael ed. Hermann, Klaus J. Kaplan, Marion A. Longerich, Peter, Politik der Vernichtung. Rassenpolitik und Verfolgungserfahrung —, Hamburg Lowenstein, New York Dokumente des faschistischen Antisemitismus —, Leipzig Paucker, Arnold ed. Pehle, Walter H. Sauer, Paul ed. Nazi Policy towards German Jews —39, London Steinweis, Alan, Kristallnacht , Cambridge Verfolgung und organisierte Selbsthilfe —, Mainz Walk, Josef ed.
Weiss, Georg ed. Wildt, Michael ed. Eine Dokumentation, Munich Wildt, Michael, Generation des Unbedingten. Gewalt gegen Juden in der deutschen Provinz bis , Hamburg Eine Dokumentation, Reinbek Amtsblatt der Reichshauptstadt Berlin — Amtsblatt der Stadt Berlin — Dienstblatt des Magistrats von Berlin — Statistisches Jahrbuch der Stadt Berlin, Wirtschaftsblatt der Industrie- und Handelskammer zu Berlin Ausstellung zum Gedenken an den Als Zwangsarbeiterin in Berlin. Angress, Werner T.
Aus Nachbarn wurden Juden. Ausgrenzung und Selbstbehauptung —, Begleitbuch zur gleichnamigen Ausstellung, ed. Hazel Rosenstrauch, Berlin Ball-Kaduri, Kurt Jakob, Berlin wird judenfrei. Berlin — Zwischen Propaganda und Terror. Ein Begleitkatalog zur gleichnamigen Ausstellung, ed. Stiftung Topographie des Terrors, Berlin English translation: Berlin — Between Propaganda und Terror.
Exhibition catalogue, ed. Foundation Topography of Terror, Berlin Berliner Geschichtswerkstatt ed. Berliner Juden im Getto Litzmannstadt — Blau, Bruno, untitled , in: Richarz, Monika ed. Blindes Vertrauen. Versteckt am Hackeschen Markt —, n. Burkert, Hans N. Deutschkron, Inge, Ich trug den gelben Stern, Munich Edel, Peter, Wenn es ans Leben geht. Fabarius, Hans-Werner, Juden in Marienfelde. Gemeindekirchenrat der Evangelischen Kirchengemeinde Marienfelde, Berlin Fink, Devra, Aufbau im Untergang.
Fischer, Anna ed. Leben und Lehre, mit einem Nachwort von Albert H. Gailus, Manfred ed. Sieben Beispiele aus Berlin, Berlin A consequence for the Schlitters was a further lengthy period of "temporary retirement" "einstweiligen Ruhestand" from Oskar's diplomatic career. Back in London an agitated James Pettigrew, the Daily Sketch reporter who had given the affair such prominence since the beginning of January, attempted and failed to discuss the affair with the West German ambassador. It was left to a German publication, Der Spiegel , to spell out, for the benefit of readers unfamiliar with English press priorities, that it would indeed be a terrible blow for the Daily Sketch if pictures of "Frau Daisy" were to disappear from the front pages.
Oskar Schlitter was welcomed back into the diplomatic world in , working from that year until in the Trade and Development department of the Foreign Office. In he led an important series of trade negotiations with Yugoslavia. After the negotiations failed, on 13 July Schlitter found himself with an urgent appointment in London. Ordered back to Bonn by Secretary of state Carstens , on 19 July Schlitter explained to the US embassy official, Coburn Kidd, that Josip Broz Tito , the Yugoslav leader, had not been entitled to expect new West German credit guarantees or discussion of global restitution issues dating back to the war in the context of trade negotiations.
On simple humanitarian grounds, however, the government was prepared to increase damages payments for victims of pseudo-medical scientific experiments. The posting was a sensitive one partly because the Civil War had ended in with Greece on the frontline in a politically divided Europe and because of raw memories dating back two decades to the German occupation of Greece. On 18 April Schlitter signed a double taxation treaty with the Greek government.
Schlitter was still in office as ambassador on 21 April when democracy in Greece formally ended, supplanted by dictatorship. The development did nothing to diminish the diplomatic sensitivity of the posting. On 27 June Schlitter found himself in negotiation with Georgios Papadopoulos and other members of Greece's ruling junta over a possible friendship agreement between their two countries. He tried to persuade the junta to loosen certain repressive measured on the home front in order that Bonn might persuade the Council of Europe against expelling Greece.
Oskar Schlitter died in his wife's arms  at the family home in Offenstetten on 12 November Schlitter's marriage to Daisy D'ora — resulted in the birth of two children, both of whom were still alive in , but would predecease their mother. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Plundering Pensions: The Destruction of the German Pension System by the Third Reich
Oskar Schlitter. Essen , Germany. Offenstetten , Bavaria , West Germany. Munzinger-Archiv GmbH, Ravensburg. Retrieved 12 March Wolf Stegemann i. Dorsten unterm Hakenkreuz. Fernschreiben Lives Remembered. Daily Telegraph. Neue Deutsche Biographie. Im Namen des Volkes? In memoriam Chriss Fiebig : geboren am 1. Juli , gestorben am 3. November : Gedenkschrift zu ihrem 1. Jahrzeittag am 3. Honeycutt and Jane Littlejohn. En o moralisk handel? Litchfield, in collaboration with Caroline Schmitz. Meinecke, Alexandra Zapruder, Timothy Kaiser].
Hitler, a career a film by Joachim C. Fest ; a Werner Rieb production ; director, Christian Herrendoerfer. Further Your Research.